By Liliana Shymanska, Corporate Communications Officer at 百乐博app下载

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来见见一个打击假新闻的团队.

神经学家教授 吉娜•瑞彭,计算机科学家 罗伯特·艾略特·史密斯 FRSA博士和新闻学讲师 加文·埃文斯博士 share their unique insights on the misinformation that threatens the public perception of climate, 公共卫生及更多, 在今年的一次小组讨论中 百乐博app下载.

这个由跨行业专家组成的小组对社交媒体算法如何帮助假新闻传播进行了丰富的讨论, the language to be aware of when spotting misinformation in science, 以及种族科学的谬论是如何随着时间的推移而传播的.

媒体是动态的

A few years ago, Robert became concerned about the effects algorithms were having on society. 在现实中, 他发现,在他在人工智能(AI)的30年职业生涯中,算法几乎没有变化,. 真正改变的是我们接收新闻的方式.

罗伯特引用马歇尔·麦克卢汉的话开始了他的讲话, 他的著作是媒介理论研究的基石之一:“媒介就是信息”

在1960年代, 当这个短语被创造出来时, media broadcasters were only granted licenses if their coverage was honest, 公平和平衡的广播是一种有限的资源. 从那时起,带宽的限制就消失了. And in came the introduction of bandwagoning; the idea of staying on message; and the soundbite – all used to effectively fit news into those few moments they have our attention.

另一方面,社交媒体有自己的一套动态. Robert recalled simulating social media networks in a lab by modelling people as computational “agents”.

When the agents were given the opportunity to share opinions on divisive issues, 如接种疫苗, 整个网络选择了一边, 导致了一个极化的网络. 然后,对立的双方被“困”在一个回音室里, 他们周围都是和他们持有相同信念的人,却没有机会与他人进行辩论或讨论.

介意你的语言

吉娜在开场白中说:“我相信这个房间里的每个人都有一个关于性别差异科学的奇怪故事。.

吉娜的工作领域, 与关于大脑性别差异的神话作斗争, 充斥着错误信息, 但是它是从哪里来的呢?

有时,问题在于根源. 人们常常指责记者误解科学, 或者如何在社交媒体中操纵信息. But 在某些情况下, researchers themselves need to take responsibility for what they are saying.

吉娜向观众讲述了这个问题的例子, 并提出了一些“识别神经元胡言乱语”的指导方针, 总结如下表. 这些指南来源于一篇揭秘文章 房地产中介所 really mean.  例如,“看似宽敞”=一个碗柜. 

他们说什么

你所听到的

他们 should say

男人和女人有不同的。

At last the truth; men are from Mars, women are from Venus

“平均”

重要的

Important; pay attention

There is a 5%/1% probability that this finding is due to chance; we will replicate this study to confirm the findings

至关重要的

真的,真的很有必要,必须的

Some kind of inbuilt characteristic; part of an individual’s biologically determined essence

深刻的,基本

终于有了证据——那些讨厌的科学家终于赶上来了

Less than 1% of the 134k comparisons I carried out were statistically significant

伪科学的危险复兴

“种族和智力之间存在联系的主张是所谓种族科学的主要原则, 在许多情况下, 科学种族主义”, 解释加文.

某些种族天生比其他种族更聪明的观点已经被彻底揭穿为错误的, however, 它正在经历一场危险的复苏.

由一小群人类学家驱动的混合媒体来源, 智商研究人员, 心理学家和权威人士——已经导致这样的想法接触和影响新的受众,并可能产生有害的后果.

后,罗伯特, 吉娜和加文的开场白, 然后,小组就防止假新闻传播的最佳方法回答了观众的问题.

谁或什么应该决定什么是假新闻? 这应该由公司、政府还是公众来承担?

Robert took us back to the moment that he first looked into fake news. The results on Wikipedia stated that fake news consisted of articles in 洋葱 (一家美国讽刺数字媒体公司). 至关重要的ly, the term fake news derived from a type of satire that pretended to be the news. The term was later popularised by Donald Trump who took it mainstream, 用它来表示与他的观点不一致的消息.

For Robert, fake news means “pernicious information that's causing social mal-effect”. 在这种情况下, he believes responsibility for the spread of fake news should fall with the broadcaster. Regulation could be established through collaborations between governments, 企业本身, 草根运动专注于错误信息. However, according to Robert, none of those options have had much success.

假新闻不一定是虚假信息. Robert notes that categorically defining something as true or false isn’t always straightforward. This more subtle issue of false news could be tackled by human-centric regulation, 就像在广播时代看到的那样.

在加文的工作领域, 一些主要的社交媒体平台, 比如YouTube, 是否已经采取行动,通过删除和禁用他们的账号来打击那些宣传种族科学假新闻的人. This stance has been taken by various platforms due to public pressure. However, as new channels are constantly being created, this is an ongoing battle.

从吉娜的角度来看, 如果话题涉及科学, then scientists in the relevant field should be the ones to decide what is fake news. 尽管吉娜之前提到过, 在某些情况下, 科学家本身——无意中或无意中——对产生和传播假新闻负有责任.

你认为学校应该教孩子们什么来帮助他们学会批判性地思考他们所看到的信息?

The next generation will be exposed to considerably more sources of information than ever before. 随着社交媒体的发展, 到机器人和人工智能, 我们早就不再有可靠的日报了.

作为阿斯顿大学认知神经成像的教授, 吉娜回忆起她与学生们长期以来关于剽窃以及他们从哪里获取信息的斗争(只从维基百科上复制和粘贴通常不会剪切).

Gina suggests training young people to challenge the sources of information they come across; is this information repeated in two independent resources? 这些资源可靠吗?? 我们能分解一下“房地产中介术语”吗??

是否有可能说服一个用拙劣的科学证明先前持有的信念是正确的人?

“我想说是的, 这很容易,人们对改变想法的事实反应很好,但根据我的经验, 这并不经常发生,”加文承认. Due to an increase in polarisation as a result of algorithms driving people to similar content, the ability to change someone’s mind has probably become even harder in recent years. 根据加文, 在这种情况下, any alternative information that gets presented to people can get easily pigeonholed as fake news.

罗伯特表示同意,他说:“有些事情是无法说服的。”. But he also mentioned that there are others that simply get stuck in the environment around them, 尤其是在社交媒体方面. 当涉及到某一特定问题或话题的假新闻时,遵循以下几点将有助于触及那些不是“不可说服的核心”的人:

  • 不那么强烈地“解除好友”,而更强烈地添加好友. 这种方式, you are effectively opening up channels of communication and not acting like a algorithm yourself.
  • 不要讨厌头条新闻. Read the whole article before you make a judgement as oftentimes the headlines are misleading.
  • 找出你喜欢的著名作家,并推广他们的作品.
  • 发布更多的评论,而不是简单的喜欢和分享.

吉娜的建议是要经常质疑信息的来源, 即使他们支持你对某个话题的观点. 她回忆起最近发表的一篇文章,说由于伊维菌素(一种被一些反疫苗来源错误地宣传为COVID-19疫苗的替代品的药物)过量,德克萨斯州的住院患者人潮拥挤。.

After questioning the information, the article turned out false information. A reporter had merged two unrelated articles together in an attempt to create a great headline. 尽管这篇文章背后的隐含信息(抗击COVID-19大流行的最佳方式是大规模接种疫苗)是正确的, sharing fake news in this way can further convince vaccine sceptics that their stance is justified.

加文补充说,假新闻通过信息的清晰度和重复的次数来保持其“粘性”.

如何进一步打击假新闻

通过参加“性别与大脑研究”,您可以为促进性别/性别与大脑研究的准确和负责任的交流发挥作用 噪声在神经科学 project.

该项目旨在为性别差异研究的负责任沟通建立一套权威的良好实践指南. 但他们需要你的帮助才能成功.

噪声在神经科学 are keen to hear your views on what the guidelines should cover, and examples of good or poor practice in communicating research findings on sex/gender and the brain.

Their 快速的调查 (约3分钟)对所有人开放. 欲知详情,请浏览: http://www.noiseinneuroscience.com/